Herpes zoster oticus is herpes zoster virus infection of the clusters of nerve cells (ganglia) that control the nerves responsible for hearing and balance (8th cranial nerve) and for facial movement (7th cranial nerve).
Herpes zoster (shingles) is infection that results from a reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus, the virus that causes chickenpox. After an episode of chickenpox, this virus lies dormant in nerve roots and can be reactivated, travelling down the nerve fibers to the skin, where it causes painful sores. Most often the cause of reactivation is unknown but sometimes it occurs when the immune system is weakened, for example, by cancer, AIDS, or certain drugs.
Herpes zoster oticus occurs when the herpes zoster virus is reactivated in the 7th (facial) and 8th cranial nerves. The 7th cranial nerve controls some muscles of the face. The 8th cranial nerve controls hearing and balance.
(See also Overview of the Inner Ear.)
The symptoms of herpes zoster oticus include the following:
- Severe ear pain
- Fluid-filled blisters (vesicles) on the outside of the ear (pinna) and in the ear canal
- Temporary or permanent paralysis of one side of the face (similar to Bell palsy)
- Vertigo (a false sensation of moving or spinning) that lasts days to weeks
- Hearing loss, which may be permanent or which may resolve partially or completely
- Rarely, headache, confusion, or a stiff neck
Sometimes other cranial nerves are affected.
- Physical examination
- Sometimes laboratory tests of fluid from the blisters
- Sometimes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Doctors typically base the diagnosis of herpes zoster oticus on a physical examination. Sometimes doctors take scrapings of the vesicles for examination under a microscope and for culturing. MRI also may be done to make sure the symptoms are not caused by another disorder.
- Opioid drugs for pain
- Sometimes corticosteroid drugs, such as prednisone, to reduce inflammation
- Sometimes antiviral drugs to treat the infection
- Rarely surgery to relieve pressure on the facial nerve
Doctors may give people drugs to relieve their symptoms and treat herpes zoster oticus. However, it is not clear whether these drugs help very much. Corticosteroids such as prednisone are given to block inflammation. Antiviral drugs such as acyclovir or valacyclovir may help reduce the duration of the infection and are routinely given to people whose immune system is weakened or impaired. Diazepam is given to relieve the attacks of vertigo. Opioids taken by mouth are given for pain. Other treatments may be given to people who have prolonged residual pain (called postherpetic neuralgia) such as medicated skin patches, antiseizure drugs, or tricyclic antidepressants.
People who have complete paralysis of the face may need a surgical procedure to relieve pressure on the facial nerve.
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