Autonomic neuropathies are peripheral nerve disorders with disproportionate involvement of autonomic fibers.
(See also Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System.)
Autoimmune autonomic neuropathy is an idiopathic disorder that often develops after a viral infection; onset may be subacute.
Autonomic insufficiency is usually a late manifestation in alcoholic neuropathy.
Other causes can include toxins, drugs, and paraneoplastic syndromes.
Symptoms and Signs of Autonomic Neuropathies
When somatic fibers are involved, sensory loss in a stocking-and-glove distribution and distal weakness may occur.
Diagnosis of Autonomic Neuropathies
- Clinical evaluation
Diagnosis of autonomic neuropathy is based on demonstration of autonomic failure and of a specific cause of neuropathy (eg, diabetes, amyloidosis).
Autoimmune autonomic neuropathy may be suspected after a viral infection.
Ganglionic anti–acetylcholine receptor antibody A3 is present in about half of patients with autoimmune autonomic neuropathy and is occasionally present in patients with other autonomic neuropathies.
Treatment of Autonomic Neuropathies
- Treatment of underlying disorders
Underlying disorders are treated.
Autoimmune autonomic neuropathy may respond to immunotherapy; plasma exchange or IV gamma-globulin can be used for more severe cases.