Balanitis is inflammation of the glans penis, posthitis is inflammation of the prepuce, and balanoposthitis is inflammation of both.
Inflammation of the head of the penis has both infectious and noninfectious causes (see table Causes of Penile Inflammation). Often, no cause can be found.
Balanitis usually leads to posthitis except in circumcised patients.
Balanoposthitis is predisposed to by
- Diabetes mellitus
- Phimosis (tight, non-retractable prepuce)
Phimosis interferes with adequate hygiene. Subpreputial secretions may become infected with anaerobic bacteria, resulting in inflammation.
Chronic balanoposthitis increases the risk of
Causes of Penile Inflammation
Balanitis xerotica obliterans
Fixed drug eruptions
* Reactive arthritis can cause shallow, painless ulcers of the glans (balanitis circinata).
Symptoms and Signs
Pain, irritation, and a subpreputial discharge often occur 2 or 3 days after sexual intercourse. Phimosis, superficial ulcerations, and inguinal adenopathy may follow.
- Clinical evaluation and selective testing
History should include investigation of latex condom use. The skin should be examined for lesions that suggest a dermatosis capable of genital involvement. Patients should be tested for both infectious and noninfectious causes, especially candidiasis. Blood should be tested for glucose.
- Hygiene and treatment of specific causes
- Sometimes subpreputial irrigation
- Sometimes circumcision
Hygiene measures should be instituted and specific causes treated. Subpreputial irrigation to remove secretions and detritus may be necessary. If phimosis persists after inflammation has resolved, circumcision should be considered. Circumcision reduces the risk of balanitis and appears to reduce the risk of HIV infection by about 50 to 60% in men who have sex with HIV-positive females.