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7 Interactions found for:

Xanax and Zoloft
Interactions Summary
  • 4 Major
  • 2 Moderate
  • 1 Minor
  • Xanax
  • Zoloft

Drug Interactions

Minor
Xanax + Zoloft

The following applies to the ingredients: Alprazolam (found in Xanax) and Sertraline (found in Zoloft)

Professional Content

Sertraline may increase plasma alprazolam concentrations by inhibiting its CYP450 3A4 metabolism. In healthy subjects, there were no pharmacokinetic changes and there were slight decreases in a driving simulation test score. The clinical significance is believed to be minor.

References

  1. Hassan PC, Sproule BA, Naranjo CA, Herrmann N "Dose-response evaluation of the interaction between sertraline and alprazolam in vivo." J Clin Psychopharmacol 20 (2000): 150-8
  2. Vonmoltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Cotreaubibbo MM, Harmatz JS, Shader RI "Inhibitors of alprazolam metabolism in vitro: effect of serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor antidepressants, ketoconazole and quinidine." Br J Clin Pharmacol 38 (1994): 23-31
  3. Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, eds. "Goodman and Gilman's the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 8th ed." New York, NY: Pergamon Press Inc. (1990):

Drug and Food Interactions

Moderate
Xanax + Food

The following applies to the ingredients: Alprazolam (found in Xanax)

Grapefruit and grapefruit juice may interact with ALPRAZolam and lead to potentially dangerous side effects. Discuss the use of grapefruit products with your doctor. Do not increase or decrease the amount of grapefruit products in your diet without first talking to your doctor. Do not drink alcohol while taking ALPRAZolam. This medication can increase the effects of alcohol. You may feel more drowsy, dizzy, or tired if you take ALPRAZolam with alcohol. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions or concerns.

Moderate
Zoloft + Food

The following applies to the ingredients: Sertraline (found in Zoloft)

You should avoid or limit the use of alcohol while being treated with sertraline. Alcohol can increase the nervous system side effects of sertraline such as dizziness, drowsiness, and difficulty concentrating. Some people may also experience impairment in thinking and judgment. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions or concerns.

Drug and Pregnancy Interactions

The following applies to the ingredients: Alprazolam (found in Xanax)

Professional Content

This drug is only recommended for use during pregnancy when there are no alternatives and the benefit outweighs the risk, especially during the first trimester of pregnancy.

AU TGA pregnancy category: C
US FDA pregnancy category: Not assigned.

Risk Summary: Use may be associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations. There are no adequate studies of this drug in pregnant women to inform a drug-related risk.

Comments:
-The child born to a mother taking benzodiazepines may be at risk for withdrawal symptoms.
-Benzodiazepines may cause fetal harm when administered during pregnancy.
-The patient should be warned of the potential risks to the fetus and instructed to discontinue the drug prior to becoming pregnant.
-A pregnancy exposure registry is available.

Several studies have suggested an increased risk of congenital malformations associated with the use of minor tranquilizers (i.e., chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, meprobamate) during the first trimester of pregnancy. There are no controlled data in human pregnancy.

To monitor maternal-fetal outcome of pregnant women exposed to antiepileptic drugs, the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) Pregnancy Registry has been established. Healthcare providers are encouraged to prospectively register patients. For additional information: http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org/

AU TGA pregnancy category C: Drugs which, owing to their pharmacological effects, have caused or may be suspected of causing, harmful effects on the human fetus or neonate without causing malformations. These effects may be reversible. Accompanying texts should be consulted for further details.

US FDA pregnancy category Not Assigned: The US FDA has amended the pregnancy labeling rule for prescription drug products to require labeling that includes a summary of risk, a discussion of the data supporting that summary, and relevant information to help health care providers make prescribing decisions and counsel women about the use of drugs during pregnancy. Pregnancy categories A, B, C, D, and X are being phased out.

References

  1. "Product Information. Niravam (alprazolam)." Schwarz Pharma, Mequon, WI.
  2. "Product Information. Xanax (alprazolam)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  3. "Product Information. Xanax XR (alprazolam)." Pfizer U.S. Pharmaceuticals Group, New York, NY.
  4. Cerner Multum, Inc. "UK Summary of Product Characteristics." O 0
  5. Cerner Multum, Inc. "Australian Product Information." O 0

The following applies to the ingredients: Sertraline (found in Zoloft)

Professional Content

This drug should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk to the fetus, taking into account the risks of untreated depression.
-Oral concentrate and solution formulations containing alcohol: Not recommended.

AU TGA pregnancy category: C
US FDA pregnancy category: Not assigned.

Risk summary: Malformative risk is unlikely when given during the first trimester. There is inconclusive data on use of this drug in the third trimester to inform of a drug-related risk.

Comments:
-A pregnancy exposure registry is available.
-Neonates exposed to this drug late in the third trimester may require respiratory support, tube feeding, and/or prolonged hospitalization.
-Exposed neonates should be monitored after delivery for direct toxic effects of this drug, drug discontinuation syndrome, and serotonin syndrome (e.g., respiratory distress, cyanosis, apnea, seizures, temperature instability, feeding difficulty, vomiting, hypoglycemia, hypo/hypertonia, hyperreflexia, tremor, jitteriness, irritability, constant crying).

Animal studies have failed to reveal evidence of teratogenicity; however, there was evidence of delayed ossification and effects on reproduction attributed to maternal toxicity. Decreased neonatal survival following maternal administration at exposures similar to or slightly greater than the maximum recommended human dose of 200 mg was also observed; the clinical significance is unknown. There are no controlled data in human pregnancy.

The results of several studies suggest that the use of SSRIs in the first trimester of pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and/or other congenital malformations; however, this association has not been clearly established. The association appears to be strongest for another SSRI, paroxetine.

Use of sertraline during pregnancy has been reported to cause symptoms compatible with withdrawal reactions in neonates whose mothers had taken sertraline. Neonates exposed to SSRIs and SNRIs late in the third trimester have uncommonly reported clinical findings including respiratory distress, cyanosis, apnea, seizures, temperature instability, feeding difficulty, vomiting, hypoglycemia, hypotonia, hyperreflexia, tremor, jitteriness, irritability, and constant crying. These effects have mostly occurred either at birth or within a few days of birth. These features are consistent with either a direct toxic effect of SSRIs and SNRIs, or possibly a drug discontinuation syndrome; in some cases, the clinical picture is consistent with serotonin syndrome. The results of a cohort study indicate that 30% of neonates who had prolonged exposure to SSRIs in utero experience symptoms, in a dose-response manner, of a neonatal abstinence syndrome after birth. The authors suggest that infants exposed to SSRIs should be closely monitored for a minimum of 48 hours after birth.

Epidemiological data have suggested that the use of SSRIs, particularly in late pregnancy, may increase the risk of persistent pulmonary hypertension in the newborn. Data are not available for SNRIs.

One study compared 267 women exposed to an SSRI - either fluvoxamine, paroxetine, or sertraline, to 267 controls. Exposure to SSRIs was not associated with either increased risk for major malformations, higher rates of miscarriage, stillbirth, or prematurity. Mean birth weights among SSRI users were similar to controls as were the gestational ages. The study concluded that the SSRIs fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline did not appear to increase teratogenic risk when used in their recommended doses.

Animal data with sertraline have not shown an effect on fertility. Human case reports from some SSRIs have shown an effect on sperm quality that is reversible. As yet, the impact of this on human fertility has not been observed.

To monitor maternal-fetal outcomes of pregnant women exposed to antidepressant therapy, a National Pregnancy Registry for Antidepressants has been established. Healthcare providers are encouraged to prospectively register patients. For additional information: https://womensmentalhealth.org/clinical-and-research-programs/pregnancyregistry/antidepressants/

AU TGA pregnancy category C: Drugs which, owing to their pharmacological effects, have caused or may be suspected of causing, harmful effects on the human fetus or neonate without causing malformations. These effects may be reversible. Accompanying texts should be consulted for further details.

US FDA pregnancy category Not Assigned: The US FDA has amended the pregnancy labeling rule for prescription drug products to require labeling that includes a summary of risk, a discussion of the data supporting that summary, and relevant information to help health care providers make prescribing decisions and counsel women about the use of drugs during pregnancy. Pregnancy categories A, B, C, D, and X are being phased out.

References

  1. "Product Information. Zoloft (sertraline)." Roerig Division, New York, NY.
  2. Cerner Multum, Inc. "Australian Product Information." O 0
  3. Cerner Multum, Inc. "UK Summary of Product Characteristics." O 0

Drug and Breastfeeding Interactions

The following applies to the ingredients: Alprazolam (found in Xanax)

Professional Content

Use is not recommended.
-Some experts recommend: A decision should be made to discontinue breastfeeding or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Excreted into human milk: Yes

Comments:
-The American Academy of Pediatrics considers this agent a drug for which the effect on nursing infants is unknown but may be of concern.
-Chronic administration of diazepam to nursing mothers has been reported to cause their infants to become lethargic and to lose weight.

References

  1. United States National Library of Medicine "Toxnet. Toxicology Data Network. Available from: URL: http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?LACT." ([cited 2013 -]):
  2. "Product Information. Niravam (alprazolam)." Schwarz Pharma, Mequon, WI.
  3. Briggs GG, Freeman RK. "Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation. 10th ed." Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health (2015):
  4. "Product Information. Xanax XR (alprazolam)." Pfizer U.S. Pharmaceuticals Group, New York, NY.
  5. Cerner Multum, Inc. "Australian Product Information." O 0
  6. Cerner Multum, Inc. "UK Summary of Product Characteristics." O 0
  7. "Product Information. Xanax (alprazolam)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.

The following applies to the ingredients: Sertraline (found in Zoloft)

Professional Content

Use is not recommended; benefit to the mother should outweigh risk to the infant.

Excreted into human milk: Yes

Comments:
-This drug has been considered one of the preferred antidepressants during breastfeeding.
-Accumulation of the drug may occur in preterm infants with impaired metabolic activity; effects similar to neonatal abstinence may rarely present in these infants.
-Mothers taking an SSRI during pregnancy and postpartum may have difficulty breastfeeding and may require additional breastfeeding support.

Benign neonatal sleep myoclonus in a 4-month-old infant and agitation in that spontaneously resolved in another infant was reported to the Australian Adverse Drug Reaction Advisory Committee and may be related to the presence of sertraline in breastmilk.

Levels of sertraline in breastmilk are reported to be low; the weakly active metabolite desmethylsertraline may be detectable in low levels. In a study of 26 breastfeeding women who were, on average, 15.8 weeks postpartum and receiving an average of 124 mg sertraline daily for at least 14 days for severe depression, complete sets of milk sample data were available for 15 mothers. Analysis of these samples led the study authors to estimate that an exclusively breastfed infant would receive an average of 0.54% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage. Pumping and discarding milk 8 to 9 hours after the mother's dose would decrease the infant's daily dosage by 17%.

Amounts of sertraline ingested by breastfed infants are reported to be small. There was an analysis of 30 breastfed infants aged 6 to 13 weeks, of which 19 were exclusively breastfed and 11 breastfed at least half the time. Serum sertraline levels were below 1 mcg/L in 22 infants. The other 8 infants had an average serum sertraline level of 7.9 mcg/L; their mothers were taking a average of 109 mg sertraline daily, with an average serum level of 52.8 mcg/L.

The data from one study on three breast-fed infants suggested that sertraline and/or its almost inactive metabolite norsertraline may be present at very low concentrations in the plasma of breast-fed infants. No adverse effects were noted in the infants.

A pooled analysis of 53 mother-infant pairs from published and unpublished cases found that infants had an average of 2% of the sertraline plasma levels of the mothers'; three of the infants had a plasma level greater than 10% of the mothers'.

A study of fourteen mother-infant pairs reported that while mothers receiving clinical doses of sertraline experienced substantial blockade of the platelet 5-HT transporter, platelet 5-HT uptake in nursing infants of treated mothers was unaltered.

Another study of twelve breast-feeding mothers reported that both sertraline and desmethylsertraline were present in all breast milk samples. Detectable levels of sertraline were reported in three nursing infants and detectable levels of desmethylsertraline were reported in six infants.

A case study of a mother breast-feeding while receiving sertraline therapy has also been reported. The drug was found to be present in the mother's milk. However, no sertraline was detected in the infant's serum and no abnormal occurrences were noted in the development of this infant either.

References

  1. Cerner Multum, Inc. "Australian Product Information." O 0
  2. Cerner Multum, Inc. "UK Summary of Product Characteristics." O 0
  3. United States National Library of Medicine "Toxnet. Toxicology Data Network. Available from: URL: http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?LACT." ([cited 2013 -]):
  4. "Product Information. Zoloft (sertraline)." Roerig Division, New York, NY.

Therapeutic Duplication Warnings

No warnings were found for your selected drugs.

Therapeutic duplication warnings are only returned when drugs within the same group exceed the recommended therapeutic duplication maximum.

Switch to: Professional Interactions

Drug Interaction Classification

These classifications are only a guideline. The relevance of a particular drug interaction to a specific individual is difficult to determine. Always consult your healthcare provider before starting or stopping any medication.

Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No interaction information available.

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